Notes on the data: Premature mortality by selected cause - 0 to 74 years

Deaths from cancer, persons aged 0 to 74 years, 2010 to 2014

 

Policy context:  The leading cause of premature mortality in Australia is cancer. Cancer is a general term used to describe the group of diseases where cells grow in an uncontrolled and purposeless way inside the body [1]. Some cancers can be cured, others can be controlled by medical treatment and some are diagnosed too late for medical treatment to be effective.

Although the causes of many cancers are not fully understood, some of the factors that place people at greater risk of developing cancer are well recognised. They include: biomedical factors (eg. genetic susceptibility, hormonal factors), behavioural factors (eg. smoking - cause of around 20-30% of all cancers, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and obesity, chronic infections, diet) and environmental factors (eg. sunlight, radiation, occupational exposures, pollution) [2]. Some risk factors cannot be changed while others, especially those related to behaviours, are modifiable. The risk of many cancers increases as people age.

Socioeconomic disparities are evident in both cancer incidence and mortality. Australians living in areas of lower socioeconomic status (SES) had higher rates of cancer-related mortality than those in higher SES areas over the period 2003-2007, while cancer incidence varied more by cancer type [2]. For example, in South Australia (1977-2001), the incidence of cancer was higher in males in low SES areas, whereas the reverse was noted for females [3]. Higher cancer rates in males in low SES areas were observed for cancers of the lip, mouth (minus lip), throat, oesophagus, stomach, gallbladder, larynx and lung; whereas for females, there were higher rates in high SES areas for cancers of the breast, colon and skin cancer (melanoma) [3].

References

  1. Cancer Council Australia (CCA). About cancer: FAQ [Internet]. [cited 2013 Oct 18]. Available from: http://www.cancer.org.au/aboutcancer/FAQ.htm#491.
  2. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) & Australasian Association of Cancer Registries (AACR). Cancer in Australia 2010: an overview. Cancer series no. 60. (AIHW Cat. no. CAN 56). Canberra: AIHW; 2010.
  3. Cancer Council SA (CCSA). Statistics: all cancers. Adelaide; CCSA; 2009.
 

Notes:  International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes: C00-D48

For deaths data released since 2007, the ABS has applied a staged approach to the coding of cause of death which affects the number of records available for release at any date. In each release, the latest year’s data is preliminary, the second latest is revised and the data for the remaining years is final. For further information about the ABS revisions process see the following and related sites: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/3303.0Explanatory+Notes12012.

 

Numerator:  Deaths from cancer at ages 0 to 74 years

 

Detail of analysis:  Average annual indirectly age-standardised rate per 100,000 population (aged 0 to 74 years); and/or indirectly age-standardised ratio, based on the Australian standard.

 

Source:  Data compiled by PHIDU from deaths data based on the 2010 to 2014 Cause of Death Unit Record Files supplied by the Australian Coordinating Registry and the Victorian Department of Justice, on behalf of the Registries of Births, Deaths and Marriages and the National Coronial Information System. The population is the ABS Estimated Resident Population (ERP) for Australia, 30 June 2010 to 30 June 2014.

 

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